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Development of Btrfs started in 2007. Since that time, Btrfs is a part of the Linux kernel and is under active development.
 
Development of Btrfs started in 2007. Since that time, Btrfs is a part of the Linux kernel and is under active development.
  
Jointly developed at [[Contributors|multiple companies]], Btrfs is licensed under the GPL and open for contribution from anyone.
+
Jointly developed by multiple companies (https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Contributors.html, Btrfs is licensed under the GPL and open for contribution from anyone.
  
 
[[Production_Users|List of companies using btrfs in production]].
 
[[Production_Users|List of companies using btrfs in production]].
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* Extent based file storage
 
* Extent based file storage
 
* 2^64 byte == 16 EiB maximum file size (practical limit is 8 EiB due to Linux VFS)
 
* 2^64 byte == 16 EiB maximum file size (practical limit is 8 EiB due to Linux VFS)
* Space-efficient packing of small files
+
* [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Inline-files.html Space-efficient packing of small files]
 
* Space-efficient indexed directories
 
* Space-efficient indexed directories
 
* Dynamic inode allocation
 
* Dynamic inode allocation
 
* Writable snapshots, read-only snapshots
 
* Writable snapshots, read-only snapshots
* Subvolumes (separate internal filesystem roots)
+
* [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Subvolumes.html Subvolumes] (separate internal filesystem roots)
* Checksums on data and metadata (crc32c, xxhash, sha256, blake2b)
+
* [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Checksumming.html Checksums on data and metadata] (crc32c, xxhash, sha256, blake2b)
* [[Compression]] (ZLIB, LZO, ZSTD), heuristics
+
* [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Compression.html Compression] (ZLIB, LZO, ZSTD), heuristics
 
* Integrated [[Multiple_Device_Support|multiple device support]]
 
* Integrated [[Multiple_Device_Support|multiple device support]]
 
** File Striping
 
** File Striping
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** File Striping+Mirroring
 
** File Striping+Mirroring
 
** Single and Dual Parity implementations (experimental, not production-ready)
 
** Single and Dual Parity implementations (experimental, not production-ready)
* SSD (flash storage) awareness (TRIM/Discard for reporting free blocks for reuse) and optimizations (e.g. avoiding unnecessary seek optimizations, sending writes in clusters, even if they are from unrelated files. This results in larger write operations and faster write throughput)
+
* SSD (flash storage) awareness
* Background scrub process for finding and repairing errors of files with redundant copies
+
** [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Trim.html TRIM/Discard] for reporting free blocks for reuse
* Online filesystem defragmentation
+
** Optimizations (e.g. avoiding unnecessary seek optimizations, sending writes in clusters, even if they are from unrelated files. This results in larger write operations and faster write throughput)
* [[btrfsck|Offline filesystem check]]
+
* Background [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Scrub.html scrub] process for finding and repairing errors of files with redundant copies
 +
* Online filesystem [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Defragmentation.html defragmentation]
 +
* [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/btrfs-check.html Offline filesystem check]
 
* In-place [[Conversion_from_Ext3|conversion]] of existing ext2/3/4 and reiserfs file systems
 
* In-place [[Conversion_from_Ext3|conversion]] of existing ext2/3/4 and reiserfs file systems
* [[Seed-device|Seed devices]]. Create a (readonly) filesystem that acts as a template to seed other Btrfs filesystems. The original filesystem and devices are included as a readonly starting point for the new filesystem. Using copy on write, all modifications are stored on different devices; the original is unchanged.
+
* [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Seeding-device.html Seeding devices]. Create a (readonly) filesystem that acts as a template to seed other Btrfs filesystems. The original filesystem and devices are included as a readonly starting point for the new filesystem. Using copy on write, all modifications are stored on different devices; the original is unchanged.
* Subvolume-aware [[quota support]]
+
* Subvolume-aware [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Qgroups.html quota support]
* Send/receive of subvolume changes
+
* [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Send-receive.html Send/receive] of subvolume changes, efficient incremental filesystem mirroring and [[Incremental_Backup|backup]]
** Efficient incremental filesystem mirroring and [[Incremental_Backup|backup]]
+
 
* Batch, or out-of-band [[deduplication]] (happens after writes, not during)
 
* Batch, or out-of-band [[deduplication]] (happens after writes, not during)
* Swapfile support
+
* [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Swapfile.html Swapfile] support
* [[Tree-checker]], post-read and pre-write metadata verification
+
* [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Tree-checker.html Tree-checker], post-read and pre-write metadata verification
 
* [[Zoned]] mode support (SMR/ZBC/ZNS friendly allocation)
 
* [[Zoned]] mode support (SMR/ZBC/ZNS friendly allocation)
 
* fsverity integration
 
* fsverity integration
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=== Features Currently in Development or Planned for Future Implementation ===
 
=== Features Currently in Development or Planned for Future Implementation ===
  
* DAX/persistent memory support
 
 
* The file/directory -level encryption support (fscrypt)
 
* The file/directory -level encryption support (fscrypt)
 +
* DAX/persistent memory support
  
 
=== Documentation ===
 
=== Documentation ===
  
 
* https://btrfs.readthedocs.org or https://btrfs.rtfd.io
 
* https://btrfs.readthedocs.org or https://btrfs.rtfd.io
 +
* the #btrfs channel is at [https://libera.chat libera.chat], matrix.org bridge works (persistent room #btrfs:matrix.org).
  
 
</div>
 
</div>
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* [[Problem FAQ]] — Commonly-encountered problems and solutions.
 
* [[Problem FAQ]] — Commonly-encountered problems and solutions.
 
** [[Gotchas]] — lists known bugs and issues, but not necessarily solutions.
 
** [[Gotchas]] — lists known bugs and issues, but not necessarily solutions.
 
=== External Btrfs Documentation / Guides ===
 
 
Links to Btrfs documentation of various Linux distributions:
 
 
* "[https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E37670_01/E37355/html/ol_btrfs.html The Btrfs File System]" chapter in the [https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E37670_01/E37355/html/index.html Oracle Linux 6 Administrator's Solutions Guide]
 
* [https://documentation.suse.com/sles/15-GA/single-html/SLES-storage/#sec-filesystems-major-btrfs Major File Systems in Linux] chapter in the [https://documentation.suse.com/en-us/sles/15-GA/single-html/SLES-storage/ SLES 15 Storage Administration Guide]
 
* [https://help.ubuntu.com/community/btrfs Btrfs Wiki page] on the [https://help.ubuntu.com/community Ubuntu Community Help Wiki]
 
* [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Btrfs Btrfs Wiki page] on the [https://wiki.archlinux.org/ Arch Linux Wiki]
 
* [http://marc.merlins.org/perso/btrfs/post_2014-05-21_My-Btrfs-Talk-at-Linuxcon-JP-2014.html Marc MERLIN's Btrfs talk at Linuxcon JP 2014] which gives an overview of Btrfs, best practices, and its more interesting features.
 
  
 
=== Manual pages ===
 
=== Manual pages ===
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* [[Developer's FAQ]] — hints and answers for contributors and developers, general information about patch formatting
 
* [[Developer's FAQ]] — hints and answers for contributors and developers, general information about patch formatting
 
* [[Development notes]] — notes, hints, checklists for specific implementation tasks (eg. adding new ioctls)
 
* [[Development notes]] — notes, hints, checklists for specific implementation tasks (eg. adding new ioctls)
* [[Code documentation]] — trees, source files, sample code for manipulating trees
 
 
* [[Data Structures]] — detailed on-disk data structures
 
* [[Data Structures]] — detailed on-disk data structures
 
* [[On-disk_Format | On-disk Format]] - Details of data structures written on disk
 
* [[On-disk_Format | On-disk Format]] - Details of data structures written on disk
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* [[Btrfs design]] — design notes (possibly out of date in places)
 
* [[Btrfs design]] — design notes (possibly out of date in places)
 
* [[Multiple Device Support]] — design notes
 
* [[Multiple Device Support]] — design notes
* [[ENOSPC]] — Current ENOSPC design issues
 
 
* [[Design_notes_on_Send/Receive]] — notes from initial impelentation, protocol V2 updates draft
 
* [[Design_notes_on_Send/Receive]] — notes from initial impelentation, protocol V2 updates draft
 
* [[Qgroups status quo]] - notes on some qgroups observations/pain points
 
* [[Qgroups status quo]] - notes on some qgroups observations/pain points
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<!-- News Block -->
 
<!-- News Block -->
 
<div style="margin:0; margin-top:10px; border:1px solid #dfdfdf; padding: 0em 1em 1em 1em; background-color:#f0e0d0; align:left;">
 
<div style="margin:0; margin-top:10px; border:1px solid #dfdfdf; padding: 0em 1em 1em 1em; background-color:#f0e0d0; align:left;">
 +
 
== News ==
 
== News ==
  
''' New location for documentation '''
+
''' btrfs-progs v5.19.1 (Sep 2022) '''
 
+
* Please see the release notes at [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/CHANGES.html#btrfs-progs-5-19-1-2022-09-12 readthedocs.io]
The new place for documentation will be at https://btrfs.readthedocs.org or https://btrfs.rtfd.io , wiki contents is going to be migrated
+
 
+
''' IRC channel at libera.chat '''
+
 
+
The #btrfs channel is at [https://libera.chat libera.chat], matrix.org bridge works (persistent room #btrfs:matrix.org).
+
  
''' btrfs-progs v5.16 (Jan 2022) '''
+
''' btrfs-progs v5.19 (Aug 2022) '''
* rescue: new subcommand clear-uuid-tree to fix failed mount due to bad uuid subvolume keys, caught by tree-checker                                                                                                                                                                           
+
* Please see the release notes at [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/CHANGES.html#btrfs-progs-5-19-2022-08-16 readthedocs.io]
* fi du: skip inaccessible files
+
* prop: properly resolve to symlink targets
+
* send, receive: fix crash after parent subvolume lookup errors
+
* build:
+
** fix build on 5.12+ kernels due to changes in linux/kernel.h
+
** fix build on musl with old kernel headers
+
* other:
+
** error handling fixes, cleanups, refactoring
+
** extent tree v2 preparatory work
+
** lots of RST documentation updates (last release with asciidoc sources), https://btrfs.readthedocs.io
+
  
''' linux v5.16 (Jan 2022) '''
+
''' linux v5.19 (Aug 2022) '''
  
Related projects: kernel port of zstd 1.4.10 also [https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/commit/?id=c8c109546a19613d323a319d0c921cb1f317e629 released] in 5.16
+
''' linux v5.18 (Jun 2022) '''
  
Performance related:
+
''' util-linux v2.38 (Apr 2022) '''
* misc small inode logging improvements (+3% throughput, -11% latency on sample dbench workload)
+
* more efficient directory logging: bulk item insertion, less tree searches and locking
+
* speed up bulk insertion of items into a b-tree, which is used when logging directories, when running delayed items for directories (fsync and transaction commits) and when running the slow path (full sync) of an fsync (bulk creation run time -4%, deletion -12%)
+
  
Core:
+
blk* utilities and libraries finally recognize btrfs formatted with zoned mode  
* continued subpage support
+
** make defragmentation work
+
** make compression write work
+
* zoned mode
+
** support ZNS (zoned namespaces), zone capacity is number of usable blocks in each zone
+
** add dedicated block group (zoned) for relocation, to prevent out of order writes in some cases
+
** greedy block group reclaim, pick the ones with least usable space first
+
* preparatory work for send protocol updates
+
* error handling improvements
+
* cleanups and refactoring
+
  
 
</div>
 
</div>
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* [[Changelog#By_feature|features by kernel version]]
 
* [[Changelog#By_feature|features by kernel version]]
 
* [[Changelog#By_version_.28linux_kernel.29|kernel changes for each release]]
 
* [[Changelog#By_version_.28linux_kernel.29|kernel changes for each release]]
* [[Changelog#By_version_.28btrfs-progs.29|btrfs-progs changes for each release]]
+
* <s>[[Changelog#By_version_.28btrfs-progs.29|btrfs-progs changes for each release (wiki)]]</s> btrfs-progs changes for each release https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/CHANGES.html
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
 
<!-- Source code Block -->
 
<!-- Source code Block -->
 
<div style="margin:0; margin-top:10px; border:1px solid #dfdfdf; padding: 0em 1em 1em 1em; background-color:#dfefdf; align:left; margin-top:10px">
 
<div style="margin:0; margin-top:10px; border:1px solid #dfdfdf; padding: 0em 1em 1em 1em; background-color:#dfefdf; align:left; margin-top:10px">
 +
 
== Source code download ==
 
== Source code download ==
  
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=== Articles, presentations, podcasts ===
 
=== Articles, presentations, podcasts ===
  
 +
* [http://marc.merlins.org/perso/btrfs/post_2014-05-21_My-Btrfs-Talk-at-Linuxcon-JP-2014.html Marc MERLIN's Btrfs talk at Linuxcon JP 2014] which gives an overview of Btrfs, best practices, and its more interesting features.
 
* '''Article:''' [http://www.howtoforge.com/a-beginners-guide-to-btrfs A Beginner's Guide To Btrfs] (2012-11-26)
 
* '''Article:''' [http://www.howtoforge.com/a-beginners-guide-to-btrfs A Beginner's Guide To Btrfs] (2012-11-26)
 
* '''Article:''' [http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/articles/servers-storage-admin/advanced-btrfs-1734952.html How I Use the Advanced Capabilities of Btrfs] by Margaret Bierman with Lenz Grimmer (2012-08-11)
 
* '''Article:''' [http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/articles/servers-storage-admin/advanced-btrfs-1734952.html How I Use the Advanced Capabilities of Btrfs] by Margaret Bierman with Lenz Grimmer (2012-08-11)
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<!-- Project Block -->
 
<!-- Project Block -->
 
<div style="margin:0; margin-top:10px; border:1px solid #dfdfdf; padding: 0em 1em 1em 1em; background-color:#dfefdf; align:left; margin-top:10px">
 
<div style="margin:0; margin-top:10px; border:1px solid #dfdfdf; padding: 0em 1em 1em 1em; background-color:#dfefdf; align:left; margin-top:10px">
 +
 
== Project information/Contact ==
 
== Project information/Contact ==
  
* [[Changelog]] history of changes in linux kernel wrt btrfs
+
* Development statistics, contributors, commits https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Contributors.html#statistics-for-5-x-series
** [[Changelog#By_feature | features added by release]]
+
* [https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Glossary.html Glossary]
* [[Contributors#Statistics_for_5.x_series|Development statistics]] — contributors, commits, lines
+
* [[Glossary]]
+
 
* Contact information:
 
* Contact information:
 
** [[Btrfs mailing list]]
 
** [[Btrfs mailing list]]
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** Reporting bugs:
 
** Reporting bugs:
 
*** for kernel code see [[Problem_FAQ#How_do_I_report_bugs_and_issues.3F | the Bugzilla FAQ]], quick tip: use product ''File System'' and component ''btrfs''.
 
*** for kernel code see [[Problem_FAQ#How_do_I_report_bugs_and_issues.3F | the Bugzilla FAQ]], quick tip: use product ''File System'' and component ''btrfs''.
*** for btrfs-progs it's either bugzilla or [https://github.com/kdave/btrfs-progs/issues/ github issues]
+
*** for btrfs-progs please use [https://github.com/kdave/btrfs-progs/issues/ github issues] (and not kernel.org bugzilla anymore)
*** for read-only documentation exported on wiki eg. manual pages as [https://github.com/kdave/btrfs-progs/issues/ github issues]
+
*** for documentation please use [https://github.com/kdave/btrfs-progs/issues/ github issues]
 
* [[Project ideas]]
 
* [[Project ideas]]
 
* [[Project_ideas#Cleanup_projects|Cleanup ideas]]
 
* [[Project_ideas#Cleanup_projects|Cleanup ideas]]
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== Wiki accounts, editing ==
 
== Wiki accounts, editing ==
  
The wiki contributions are welcome! Please create an account and wait for approval (this is a necessary spam protection and we cannot remove it). You can try to catch some of the wiki admins on [[#Project_information.2FContact|IRC]] (or ping user 'kdave' in a query) to expedite the account creation.
+
The wiki is still in use, however the main portion of documenation is being migrated to https://btrfs.readthedocs.io.
 +
 
 +
Wiki edits and fixups are welcome and may be copied to the RTD documentation eventually. Please create an account and wait for approval (this is a necessary spam protection and we cannot remove it). You can try to catch some of the wiki admins on [[#Project_information.2FContact|IRC]] (or ping user 'kdave' in a query) to expedite the account creation.
  
 
The registration requires full name for account but it's not mandatory from our perspective. The wiki User and User talk pages are created automatically but removed after account is approved. If you want to use the pages, create them manually, they won't be deleted.
 
The registration requires full name for account but it's not mandatory from our perspective. The wiki User and User talk pages are created automatically but removed after account is approved. If you want to use the pages, create them manually, they won't be deleted.

Latest revision as of 17:34, 12 September 2022

btrfs

btrfs is a modern copy on write (CoW) filesystem for Linux aimed at implementing advanced features while also focusing on fault tolerance, repair and easy administration. Its main features and benefits are:

  • Snapshots which do not make the full copy of files
  • RAID - support for software-based RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 10
  • Self-healing - checksums for data and metadata, automatic detection of silent data corruptions

Development of Btrfs started in 2007. Since that time, Btrfs is a part of the Linux kernel and is under active development.

Jointly developed by multiple companies (https://btrfs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/Contributors.html, Btrfs is licensed under the GPL and open for contribution from anyone.

List of companies using btrfs in production.

[edit] Development and Issue Reporting

For feature status, please refer to the Status page.

The Btrfs code base is stable. However, new features are still under development. Every effort is made to ensure that it remains stable and fast at each and every commit. This rapid pace of development means that the filesystem improves noticeably with every new Linux release so it's highly recommended that users run the most modern kernel possible.

For benchmarks, it's recommended to test the latest stable Linux version, and not any older, as well as the latest Linux development versions. Also, it's recommended to test the various mount options such as different compression options.

If you find any behavior you suspect to be caused by a bug, performance issues, or have any questions about using Btrfs, please email the Btrfs mailing list (no subscription required). Please report bugs on Bugzilla.

[edit] Features

Linux has a wealth of filesystems from which to choose, but we are facing a number of challenges with scaling to the large storage subsystems that are becoming common in today's data centers. Filesystems need to scale in their ability to address and manage large storage, and also in their ability to detect, repair and tolerate errors in the data stored on disk.

[edit] Major Features Currently Implemented

  • Extent based file storage
  • 2^64 byte == 16 EiB maximum file size (practical limit is 8 EiB due to Linux VFS)
  • Space-efficient packing of small files
  • Space-efficient indexed directories
  • Dynamic inode allocation
  • Writable snapshots, read-only snapshots
  • Subvolumes (separate internal filesystem roots)
  • Checksums on data and metadata (crc32c, xxhash, sha256, blake2b)
  • Compression (ZLIB, LZO, ZSTD), heuristics
  • Integrated multiple device support
    • File Striping
    • File Mirroring
    • File Striping+Mirroring
    • Single and Dual Parity implementations (experimental, not production-ready)
  • SSD (flash storage) awareness
    • TRIM/Discard for reporting free blocks for reuse
    • Optimizations (e.g. avoiding unnecessary seek optimizations, sending writes in clusters, even if they are from unrelated files. This results in larger write operations and faster write throughput)
  • Background scrub process for finding and repairing errors of files with redundant copies
  • Online filesystem defragmentation
  • Offline filesystem check
  • In-place conversion of existing ext2/3/4 and reiserfs file systems
  • Seeding devices. Create a (readonly) filesystem that acts as a template to seed other Btrfs filesystems. The original filesystem and devices are included as a readonly starting point for the new filesystem. Using copy on write, all modifications are stored on different devices; the original is unchanged.
  • Subvolume-aware quota support
  • Send/receive of subvolume changes, efficient incremental filesystem mirroring and backup
  • Batch, or out-of-band deduplication (happens after writes, not during)
  • Swapfile support
  • Tree-checker, post-read and pre-write metadata verification
  • Zoned mode support (SMR/ZBC/ZNS friendly allocation)
  • fsverity integration

[edit] Features by kernel version

[edit] Features Currently in Development or Planned for Future Implementation

  • The file/directory -level encryption support (fscrypt)
  • DAX/persistent memory support

[edit] Documentation

[edit] Documentation

[edit] Guides and usage information

[edit] Manual pages

  • Original wiki documentation (obsolete, will be removed)

[edit] Developer documentation

  • Development setup - how to build btrfs from sources and prepare a development environment
  • Original COW B-tree: Source code in C that implements the COW B-tree algorithms repository. Written by Ohad Rodeh at IBM Research in 2006, and released under a BSD license. This is a reference implementation, that works in user space.
  • Unmerged features
    • In-band (write) time deduplication

[edit] News

btrfs-progs v5.19.1 (Sep 2022)

btrfs-progs v5.19 (Aug 2022)

linux v5.19 (Aug 2022)

linux v5.18 (Jun 2022)

util-linux v2.38 (Apr 2022)

blk* utilities and libraries finally recognize btrfs formatted with zoned mode

[edit] Source code download

Btrfs source repositories describes purpose and contents, here are a few quick links:

[edit] Articles, presentations, podcasts

[edit] Historical resources

Links to old or obsolete documentation, articles. Kept for historical reasons. Stuff that's more than 3 years old.

[edit] Articles, presentations, podcasts

[edit] Project information/Contact

[edit] Wiki accounts, editing

The wiki is still in use, however the main portion of documenation is being migrated to https://btrfs.readthedocs.io.

Wiki edits and fixups are welcome and may be copied to the RTD documentation eventually. Please create an account and wait for approval (this is a necessary spam protection and we cannot remove it). You can try to catch some of the wiki admins on IRC (or ping user 'kdave' in a query) to expedite the account creation.

The registration requires full name for account but it's not mandatory from our perspective. The wiki User and User talk pages are created automatically but removed after account is approved. If you want to use the pages, create them manually, they won't be deleted.

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